The Percentage Agreement, also known as the Churchill-Stalin Pact, was a secret agreement signed in Moscow in 1944 between British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. The purpose of this agreement was to divide post-World War II Europe into spheres of influence between the two countries, in order to protect their respective interests and influence in the region.
The agreement was signed at a time when the Allies were gaining momentum in the war against Nazi Germany, and it was believed that it would help to ensure the post-war stability of Europe. The agreement established a series of percentages that would be used to determine the influence of Britain and the Soviet Union in various countries in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Under the terms of the agreement, the Soviet Union was given a greater percentage of influence in countries like Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, while Britain was granted a higher percentage in Greece. The agreement also stipulated that Yugoslavia would be evenly divided between the two countries.
However, the Percentage Agreement was controversial from the start, with many critics arguing that it was a violation of the principles of self-determination and sovereignty. The agreement also did not take into account the desires of the various countries involved, and many felt that it was a cynical power grab by the two superpowers.
In the end, the Percentage Agreement proved to be largely ineffective and was superseded by the Yalta Conference in 1945, which established a more robust system for the post-war governance of Europe. However, the agreement remains an important historical document, highlighting the complex geopolitical machinations that shaped the post-war world.